Axially invariant laminar flow in helical pipes with a finite pitch
S. Liu, and J. Masliyah. Journal of Fluid Mechanics(1993)Fazit kopiert (Artikel im Magazin).
Steady axially invariant (fully developed) incompressible laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in helical pipes of constant circular cross-section with arbitrary pitch and arbitrary radius of coil is studied. A loose-coiling analysis leads to two dominant parameters, namely Dean number, Dn = Reλ½, and Germano number, Gn = Reη, where Re is the Reynolds number, λ is the normalized curvature ratio and η is the normalized torsion. The Germano number is embedded in the body-centred azimuthal velocity which appears as a group in the governing equations. When studying Gn effects on the helical flow in terms of the secondary flow pattern or the secondary flow structure viewed in the generic (non-orthogonal) coordinate system of large Dn, a third dimensionless group emerges, γ = η/(λDn)½. For Dn < 20, the group γ* = Gn Dn-2 = η/(λRe) takes the place of γ. Numerical simulations with the full Navier-Stokes equations confirmed the theoretical findings. It is revealed that the effect of torsion on the helical flow can be neglected when γ less-than-or-equal 0.01 for moderate Dn. The critical value for which the secondary flow pattern changes from two vortices to one vortex is γ* > 0.039 for Dn < 20 and γ > 0.2 for Dn greater-than-or-equal 20. For flows with fixed high Dean number and A, increasing the torsion has the effect of changing the relative position of the secondary flow vortices and the eventual formation of a flow having a Poiseuille-type axial velocity with a superimposed swirling flow. In the orthogonal coordinate system, however, the secondary flow generally has two vortices with sources and sinks. In the small-γ limit or when Dn is very small, the secondary flow is of the usual two-vortex type when viewed in the orthogonal coordinate system. In the large-γ limit, the appearance of the secondary flow in the orthogonal coordinate system is also two-vortex like but its orientation is inclined towards the upper wall. The flow friction factor is correlated to account for Dn, A and γ effects for Dn less-than-or-equal 5000 and γ < 0.1.