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Vascular endothelial growth factor-D and its receptor VEGFR-3: two novel independent prognostic markers in gastric adenocarcinoma
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J.Clin.Oncol. 24 (2): 228-240 (2006)

PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D and its homolog VEGF-C influence lymphangiogenesis through activation of VEGF receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), and have been implicated in lymphatic tumor spread. Nodal dissemination of gastric adenocarcinomas critically determines clinical outcome and therapeutic options of affected patients. Therefore, we analyzed expression and prognostic significance of VEGF-D along with VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3 in gastric adenocarcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3 were analyzed in 91 R(0)-resected primary gastric adenocarcinomas, corresponding noncancerous gastric mucosa, and lymph node metastases employing immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization. Blood and lymph vessel densities were assessed after staining with CD31 and LYVE-1-specific antibodies. RESULTS: VEGF-D and VEGF-C were detected in 67.0% and 50.5% of gastric cancers, respectively. Healthy gastric mucosa was negative for VEGF-C and in 12.5% positive for VEGF-D. Prese
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