Human-Computer Interaction in Aerial Surveillance Tasks
L. Schmidt, and D. Ley. Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics: Visions, Concepts, Methods and Tools, Springer, Berlin, (2009)
Supervisory control of complex systems or processes by a human operator can be understood as a superordinated control loop of the technical system. In this procedure there are three steps: (1) the operator monitors the state of a process or system, (2) he analyses and assesses it in comparison with a desired state, and finally (3), a correction by a specific operation is planned and carried out, if necessary. In the context of military aerial surveillance, the essential identification and classification tasks of aircrafts are based on various sensors and data exchange with other military units. Numerous additional conditions (e.g. the political situation) have to be considered. To assist operators in aerial surveillance tasks as well as in time-critical situations and at a computer workstation with a high informational workload, the design of ergonomic human-computer interaction is a crucial factor. A model-based design of human-computer interaction for aerial surveillance tasks at military workplaces is described in this contribution. First, interactions are generally characterized according to an extended semiotic model containing four levels of interaction (pragmatic, semantic, syntactic, and physical). In the second step, the model is used for deriving and describing design consequences. Finally, as an example, it is illustrated how to design a user interface for aerial surveillance tasks according to the model.