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Abstract

Standing out as the new wonder bidimensional material, graphene oxide (GO) has aroused an exceptional interest in biomedical research by holding promise for being the antibacterial of future. First, GO possesses a specific interaction with microorganisms combined with a mild toxicity for human cells. Additionally, its antibacterial action seems to be directed to multiple targets in pathogens, causing both membranes mechanical injury and oxidative stress. Lastly, compared to other carbon materials, GO has easy and low-cost processing and is environment-friendly. This remarkable specificity and multi-targeting antibacterial activity come at a time when antibiotic resistance represents the major health challenge. Unfortunately, a comprehensive framework to understand how to effectively utilize this material against microorganisms is still lacking. In the last decade, several groups tried to define the mechanisms of interaction between GO flakes and pathogens but conflicting results have been reported. This review is focused on all the contradictions of GO antimicrobial properties in solution. Flake size, incubation protocol, time of exposure and species considered are examples of factors influencing results. These parameters will be summarized and analyzed with the aim of defining the causes of contradictions, to allow fast GO clinical application.

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0957-4484-28-15-152001
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