BibSonomy :: tag :: H1N1
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    Denise J. Jamieson, Margaret A. Honein, Sonja A. Rasmussen et al. Lancet, Vol. 374, No. 9688. (8 August 2009), pp. 451-458. BACKGROUND: Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus has been identified as the cause of a widespread outbreak of febrile respiratory infection in the USA and worldwide. We summarised cases of infection with pandemic H1N1 virus in pregnant women identified in the USA during the first month of the present outbreak, and deaths associated with this virus during the first 2 months of the outbreak. METHODS: After initial reports of infection in pregnant women, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began systematically collecting additional information about cases and deaths in pregnant women in the USA with pandemic H1N1 virus infection as part of enhanced surveillance. A confirmed case was defined as an acute respiratory illness with laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 virus infection by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR or viral culture; a probable ca.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5323458#citeulike
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    Alexandra V. Yamshchikov, Nirali S. Desai, Henry M. Blumberg, Thomas R. Ziegler, Vin Tangpricha Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Vol. 15, No. 5. (g 2009), pp. 438-449. OBJECTIVE: To review the existing human controlled intervention studies of vitamin D as adjunctive therapy in settings of infection and provide recommendations for design and implementation of future studies in this field on the basis of the evidence reviewed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials that studied vitamin D for treatment or prevention of infectious diseases in humans. Studies from 1948 through 2009 were identified through search terms in PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. RESULTS: Thirteen published controlled trials were identified by our search criteria. Ten trials were placebo controlled, and 9 of the 10 were conducted in a rigorous double-blind design. The selecte.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5662292#citeulike
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    R. G. Webster, W. J. Bean, O. T. Gorman, T. M. Chambers, Y. Kawaoka Microbiological reviews, Vol. 56, No. 1. (1 March 1992), pp. 152-179. In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and the internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) from a wide range of hosts, geographical regions, and influenza A virus subtypes support the following conclusions. (i) Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating waterfowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known HA and NA subtypes. (ii) Influenza viruses have evolved into a number of host-specific lineages that are exemplified by the NP gene and .. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/2983273#citeulike
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    R. G. Webster, G. B. Sharp, E. C. Claas American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, Vol. 152, No. 4 Pt 2. (October 1995) http://blindedscience.blogspot.com/2006/02/fido-can-get-sick-too.html In this report we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species. Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating water-fowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes. In contrast to the rapid, progressive changes in both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of mammalian virus gene lineages, avian virus genes show far less variation and, in most cases, appear to be in evolutionary stasis. There are periodic exchanges of influenza virus genes or whole viruses between species, giving rise to pandemics of disease in humans, lower animals, and birds. The periodic exchange of influenza viruses between.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5664026#citeulike
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    R. G. Webster Archives of virology. Supplementum, Vol. 13 (1997), pp. 105-113. Although influenza viruses are not spread from human to human through the conventional food chain, this is not necessarily the case for the transmission of the precursors of the human pandemic influenza viruses. Aquatic birds of the world are the reservoirs for all influenza A viruses; the virus is spread by fecal-oral transmission in untreated water. Influenza A viruses are frequently transmitted to domestic poultry and two of the 15 subtypes H5 and H7 can become highly pathogenic and have the capacity to decimate commercial poultry flocks. Less frequently, avian influenza viruses are transmitted between species-to pigs, horses and sea mammals. This transmission involves mutational, reassortant or recombinational events and can occur through fecal contamination of unprocessed avian protein or through the water. The transmission of avian influenza viruses or virus genes to humans is postulated to occur th.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5664031#citeulike
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    Christopher Ellis, Ruth McEwen BMJ, Vol. 339, No. jul06_1. (6 July 2009), b2698. 10.1136/bmj.b2698... · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5303482#citeulike
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    Tini Garske, Judith Legrand, Christl A. Donnelly et al. BMJ, Vol. 339, No. jul14_3. (14 July 2009), pp. b2840-b2840. 10.1136/bmj.b2840... · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5158698#citeulike
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    Matthew Shun-Shin, Matthew Thompson, Carl Heneghan, Rafael Perera, Anthony Harnden, David Mant BMJ (Clinical research ed.), Vol. 339 (2009) OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir in treatment of children with seasonal influenza and prevention of transmission to children in households. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from published and unpublished randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase to June 2009, trial registries, and manufacturers and authors of relevant studies. Review methods Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials of neuraminidase inhibitors in children aged · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5726610#citeulike
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    N. J. Matheson, M. Symmonds-Abrahams, A. Sheikh, S. Shepperd, A. Harnden Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online), No. 3. (2003) BACKGROUND: During epidemic years, influenza attack rates in children exceed 40%. Options for prevention and treatment include immunisation, amantadine and rimantadine, and the neuraminidase inhibitors: zanamivir and oseltamivir. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza infection in children. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Trials Register, generally from inception through to December 2002. We also screened the references of retrieved articles and scrutinised relevant web sites. We also screened references of retrieved articles and other systematic reviews, scrutinis.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5726761#citeulike
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    Melissa A. Kaufman, Graeme J. Duke, Forbes McGain et al. The Medical journal of Australia, Vol. 191, No. 3. (3 August 2009), pp. 154-156. We present the first six cases of H1N1 influenza 09 (confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction test from nasopharyngeal swabs) in patients requiring admission to intensive care in Australia (in three hospitals in the north-western suburbs of Melbourne). These cases highlight the small but significant risk of life-threatening respiratory failure associated with H1N1 influenza 09 infection.... · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5727785#citeulike
    6 months and 26 days ago
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    Arnold S. Monto, Suzanne E. Ohmit, Joshua G. Petrie et al. The New England journal of medicine, Vol. 361, No. 13. (24 September 2009), pp. 1260-1267. BACKGROUND: The efficacy of influenza vaccines may vary from year to year, depending on a variety of factors, and may differ for inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. METHODS: We carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of licensed inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines in healthy adults during the 2007-2008 influenza season and estimated the absolute and relative efficacies of the two vaccines. RESULTS: A total of 1952 subjects were enrolled and received study vaccines in the fall of 2007. Influenza activity occurred from January through April 2008, with the circulation of influenza types A (H3N2) (about 90%) and B (about 9%). Absolute efficacy against both types of influenza, as measured by isolating the virus in culture, identifying it on real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay, or both, was.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5833500#citeulike
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    Penina Haber, James Sejvar, Yann Mikaeloff, Frank DeStefano Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience, Vol. 32, No. 4. (2009), pp. 309-323. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis in developed countries and is characterized by various degrees of weakness, sensory abnormalities and autonomic dysfunction. Although the underlying aetiology and pathophysiology of GBS are not completely understood, it is broadly believed that immune stimulation plays a role in its pathogenesis. Thus, since vaccines have an effect on the immune system it is biologically plausible that immunizations may be associated with subsequent GBS. The objective of this article is to review the current body of evidence that either supports or does not support a causal, rather than just temporal, association between various vaccines and GBS, and to provide an evidence-based review of this issue. The scope of the article includes published rep.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/4413938#citeulike
    6 months and 26 days ago
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    Penina Haber, Frank DeStefano, Fredrick J. Angulo et al. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292, No. 20. (24 November 2004), pp. 2478-2481. CONTEXT: An unexplained increase in the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) occurred among recipients of the swine influenza vaccine in 1976-1977. Guillain-Barre syndrome remains the most frequent neurological condition reported after influenza vaccination to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) since its inception in 1990. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends of reports to VAERS of GBS following influenza vaccination in adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: VAERS is the US national spontaneous reporting system for adverse events following vaccination. Reports of GBS in persons 18 years or older following influenza vaccination were evaluated for each influenza season from July 1, 1990, through June 30, 2003. The number of people vaccinated was estimated from the National Health Interview Survey and US cen.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/5887851#citeulike
    6 months and 26 days ago
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    Sucharit Bhakdi, Karl Lackner, Hans-Wilhelm W. Doerr Medical microbiology and immunology (23 October 2009) Programs for vaccination against the new influenza A/H1N1 targeting many hundred million citizens in Europe and the USA are to be launched in the fall of this year. The USA is planning to employ a non-adjuvanted vaccine, whereas European nations are opting for inclusion of MF59, the adjuvant contained in an alternative seasonal flu vaccine, or the related adjuvant AS03 that is contained in a recently developed H5N1 vaccine. We draw attention to unappreciated hazards of using adjuvanted vaccine in Europe. Evidence from animal experiments in conjunction with clinical epidemiological data indicates that, quite irrespective of cause, stimulation of the immune system may accelerate atherogenesis. Application of adjuvanted flu vaccines to individuals at risk may therefore aggravate the course of underlying atherosclerotic vessel disease with all the clinical consequences. The same ma.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/6008011#citeulike
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    Angelika Banzhoff, Michele Pellegrini, Giuseppe Del Giudice, Elena Fragapane, Nicola Groth, Audino Podda Influenza and other respiratory viruses, Vol. 2, No. 6. (November 2008), pp. 243-249. Influenza is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality through frequent seasonal epidemics and infrequent pandemics. Morbidity and mortality rates from seasonal influenza are highest in the most frail, such as the elderly, those with underlying chronic conditions and very young children. Antigenic mismatch between strains recommended for vaccine formulation and circulating viruses can further reduce vaccine efficacy in these populations. Seasonal influenza vaccines with enhanced, cross-reactive immunogenicity are needed to address these problems and can confer a better immune protection, particularly in seasons were antigenic mismatch occurs. A related issue for vaccine development is the growing threat of pandemic influenza caused by H5N1 avian strains. Vaccines against strains with pa.. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/6043651#citeulike
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    J. Mereckiene, S. Cotter, A. Nicoll et al. Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 43. (23 October 2008) A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with the European Union (EU) Member States and Norway and Iceland to describe seasonal influenza immunisation in the 2006-7 season, in particular to identify country-specific recommendations for risk groups, obtain vaccine uptake information and allow comparison with global recommendations. A standardised questionnaire was completed electronically by each country's project gatekeeper. Of the 29 countries surveyed, 28 recommended seasonal influenza vaccination for older age groups (22 for those aged > 65 years), and in one country vaccine was recommended for all age groups. All countries recommended vaccinating patients with chronic pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and most countries advised to immunise patients with haematologic or metabolic disorders .. · http://www.citeulike.org/user/ggrassi/article/6086664#citeulike
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