Bayesian inference is one of two dominant approaches to statistical inference. The word Bayesian refers to the influence of Reverend Thomas Bayes. Bayesian inference is a modern revival of the classical definition of probability.
N. Fusi, and J. Listgarten. Research in Computational Molecular Biology: 20th Annual Conference, RECOMB 2016, Santa Monica, CA, USA, April 17-21, 2016, Proceedings, page 95--110. Springer International Publishing, (2016)