On June 26, 1730, French astronomer Charles Messier was born. He is best known for his publication of an astronomical catalogue consisting of nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 110 "Messier objects". The purpose of the catalogue was to help astronomical observers, in particular comet hunters such as himself, distinguish between permanent and transient visually diffuse objects in the sky. ·
On May 2nd, 1601 (or 1602), German Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher was born. He has published most notably in the fields of oriental studies, geology, and medicine, and has been compared to Leonardo da Vinci for his enormous range of interests. He is regarded as one of the founders of Egyptology for his (mostly fruitless) efforts in deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs, wrote an encyclopedia about China, studied volcanos and fossils, was one of the very first to observe microbes thorough a microscope, and experimented with the laterna magica as a predecessor of photography. ·
On March 6, 1787, German optician and physicist Joseph Fraunhofer - later enobled Ritter von Fraunhofer - was born. He is known for the discovery of the dark absorption lines known as Fraunhofer lines in the Sun's spectrum, and for making excellent optical glass and achromatic telescope objectives. Moreover, he is the name giver for the German Fraunhofer Society for the advancement of applied research. ·
On January 23, 1840, German physicist, optometrist, entrepreneur, and social reformer Ernst Abbe was born. Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. As a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums and other optical systems, Abbe developed numerous optical instruments.
On January 23, 1840, German physicist, optometrist, entrepreneur, and social reformer Ernst Abbe was born. Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. As a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums and other optical systems, Abbe developed numerous optical instruments. ·
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) is an international, specialized, English-language journal devoted to publication of original contributions in all areas of optics and photonics. The Journal disseminates new results in the theory, design, applications, fabrication, performance and characterization of optics and photonics materials including bio-related functions such as bio-optics, bio-photonics and also optoelectronics. The journal is also devoted to challenging and innovating methods and techniques related to the development of optics and photonics materials, characterization and applications. It is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal describing scientific and technological advances that cover the basic sciences, engineering aspects and applied technology. ·
GLAS (the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) is the first laser-ranging (lidar) instrument for continuous global observations of Earth, which will make unique atmospheric observations as an important component of the ESE climate change program. GLAS is a facility instrument designed to measure ice-sheet topography and associated temporal changes, cloud and atmospheric properties.and give us information on the height and thickness of radiatively important cloud layers which is needed for accurate short term climate and weather prediction. In addition, operation of GLAS over land and water will provide along-track topography. ·
B. L. G. Jonsson, C. I. Kolitsidas, and N. Hussain. (2013)cite arxiv:1307.2925Comment: Minor changes. Included a pre-page to comply with Journal requirements. Added a few more antennas for which we calculated the array figure of merit.