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bookmarks  172

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    A study was carried out to evaluate the quality of water supplied by Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA), Karachi. Gulshan-e-IQbal was selected for this purpose. Water samples from different source (12 houses) connections (one from each) were collected making a total of twelve sampling points. Physicochemical parameters (pH, Eh, turbidity, conductivity, temperature and total dissolve solid), only one microbial parameter and one chemical test (As) were tested for each sample and values compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. The results of the study demonstrated that physical and chemical quality of water was satisfactory. Some samples (3 samples) were contaminated possible causes of contamination were leaking water mains and cross connections between water mains and sewers due to close proximity. It is recommended to carry out compulsory chlorination at water sources while maintaining reasonable residuals at the consumers end to eliminate the microbial contamination.
    17 days ago by @mdashikurr
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    Mangrove ecosystem has important ecological and socio-economic values in Egypt as it represents the primary natural forest on a country dominated by deserts. Large attentions have been paid for restoration and rehabilitation of mangrove communities in the last few decades. This study was carried out at the southeastern coast part of Egypt to provide baseline information of salinity tolerant and early growth of Rhizophora mucronata in addition; different silviculture treatments for mangrove regeneration were tested. Primary survey and results of this study indicated that the highest mangrove tree height of 2.97 m was noted at medium tides, while the lowest tree height of 2.5 m was recorded at the high tides. Overall, Rhizophora mucronata trees were growing better under low to medium tides comparing with high tides. The high level of salinity (80 % of sea water) had negativity affected growth of Rhizophora mucronata seedlings. Moreover, the highest values of blade length, blade width, leaf size, plant height, and number of nodes were achieved either with using 20 % or 40 % of sea water. Using wild seedling nursery transplanting technique was more suitable for establishment of mangrove seedlings and achieved the highest survival rate of 61 %. Wild seedling direct transplanting led to high mortality rate of 68 %. There was a significant difference among the propagation methods used in this study in dry shoot weight, dry root weight, total dry weight, number of leaves, and the survival rate; however, plant height was not affected by the silviculture treatments.
    a month ago by @mdashikurr
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    Water is the most important thing for the survival of human beings because man cannot live without water for a single moment. The coastal region of Bangladesh faces pure drinking water crisis due to saline water intrusion and iron content of tube wells where pond sand filter (PSF) is using as alternative water supply system of southwestern coastal region specially Sudarban region of Bangladesh. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water and evaluate and compare the performance of these technologies at Mongla Upazila of Bagerhat District. For this purpose 24 water samples from six PSFs, eight protected pond (PP) and two reverse osmosis (RO) were collected and analyzed in the pre monsoon season. Different physico-chemical and biological parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), salinity, turbidity, ammonium (NH4+), total hardness, total alkalinity, Chloride (Cl-), total coliform and fecal coliform were measured both in PSFs and PP water. The pH, ammonium, total hardness, total alkalinity, chloride, phosphate, sulphate and nitrate value (average) of PSFs have been decreased by 7.67, 0.16mg/l, 236mg/l, 137mg/l, 228mg/l, 0.09mg/l, 32.83mg/l and 4.95mg/l respectively than the concerned pond and meet the Bangladesh standard. Though the presence of any coliform bacteria in the drinking water is harmful for human health, 58.33% of the PSFs (studied) contain fecal coliform. The study proves that PSFs is unable to treat the highly fecal coliform contaminated water. Disinfection before supplying water should be adopted to ensure the bacteria free drinking water.
    a month ago by @mdashikurr
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    The present study was carried out to examine the potential in cotton germplasm for breeding water stress tolerant plant material, and understand the genetic basis of different morphological traits related to water stress tolerance. Portioned analysis of variance was employed to obtain good parents for this purposes. The parental genotypes MNH-512, Arizona-6218, CIM-482, MS-39, and NIAB-78 were crossed in complete diallel fashion and F0 seeds of 20 hybrids and five parents were planted in the field in randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010. Simple regression analysis of F1 data revealed that additive-dominance model was quite adequate for all morphological traits. The unit slope of regression lines number of bolls (b = 1.07 ± 9.14), boll weight (b = 0.99 ± 0.11), yield per plant (b = 0.96 ± 0.31), plant height (b = 1.10 ± 0.34), leaf area index (b = 0.82 ± 0.27), and ginning percentage (b = 1.01 ± 0.12) suggested that the epistatic component was absent in the inheritance of all characters studied. The result of various plant characters including seed yield showed drastic effects of water stress as compared with those assessed in non-stressed condition. Leaf area index in the analysis of variance suggested that additive variation was more important for the character. Narrow leaf varieties NIAB-78 and CIM-482 were water stress tolerant while varieties Arizona-6218, MNH-512 and MS-39 were broader leaf showing less resistant to water stress. The information derived from these studies may be used to develop drought tolerant cotton material that could give economic yield in water stressed conditions of cotton belt.
    a month ago by @mdashikurr
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    Field experiment was conducted during 2013/2014 and 2015 seasons was aimed to evaluate productivity of Rhodes and Blue panic grasses as well as Alfalfa under sprinkler irrigation with foliar application of potassium nitrate that enable plants to cope with water stress. Each two forage grasses beside alfalfa were conducted in separate experiments. Irrigation every 10 days surpassed in total chlorophyll, leaf area, plant height, number of stems/m2, forage green yield/fed and forage dry matter yield/fed than those irrigated every 20 days. Highest percentages of water use efficiency, crude fiber and nitrogen free extract as well as yield/fed of crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract were produced from irrigation every 7 days. However, highest percentages of crude protein, ether extract and ash were produced from irrigation every 14 days. Forage species significantly differed on total chlorophyll, leaf area/plant, plant height, average of number of stem/cm2, forage green yield/fed and forage dry matter yield/fed. A significant effect due to forage species on percentages of water use efficiency, crude protein and fiber, extracting ether, ash and nitrogen free extract and nitrogen free extract as well as crude fiber, extracting ether, ash and nitrogen free extract yield/fed. Sown Rhodes grass produced maximum forage green and forage dry matter yield/fed and its quality compared with other studied forage crops. Foliar spraying of potassium nitrate at 15 ppm significantly increased total chlorophyll, leaf area, plant height, number of stems/m2, forage green and forage dry matter yield/fed. The results showed that highest percentages of water use efficiency, crude protein, crude fiber and ether extract, and nitrogen free extract and nitrogen free extract as well as crude fiber, extracting ether, ash and nitrogen free extract yield/fed. It could be stated that irrigation every 10 days and sown Rhodes grass and foliar spraying of potassium nitrate at 15 ppm maximized forage green and forage dry matter yield/fed.
    2 months ago by @mdashikurr
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    Stability of wheat is a key concern in rain fed areas which are influenced by different environmental issues. In rain fed areas to reduce the environmental consequences on wheat production, the best strategy is growing adapted varieties with yield stability. For this purpose, ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were grown at three different locations viz Arja, Rawalakot and Hajira of District Poonch Azad Kashmir to study the stability and performance of different genotypes of wheat based upon water related attributes during 2010-11 and 2011-12 according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD).Water related attributes such as cell membrane thermo-stability (CMTS), relative water content (RWC) and stomatal behavior was calculated from flag leaves to check the association of these water related parameters with biological yield of the crop. The genotypes which have more thermostable and that hold optimum relative water content and more stomatal size and frequency were more biological yield as compared to other genotypes. So the Saleem-2000 was the best genotype followed by Wafaq-2001 according to these water related parameters. To check the stability of yield the major parameter of stability was calculated through coefficient of determination Ri^2, mean yield(µ) and regression coefficient (b”i” ). From these stability parameters the genotypes which have above 90 percent coefficient of determination Ri^2, regression coefficient closest to one and high mean yield was most stable as compared to all other genotypes. According to these stability parameters Saleem-2000 was most stable followed by Wafaq-2001 in these three locations of District Poonch (AJK) Pakistan.
    3 months ago by @mdashikurr
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    Emerging rice cultivars and crop management strategies have to be investigated further with the pressing issues on water shortage for enhanced growth, development and productivity. A pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to evaluate the impacts of water regimes (aerobic, saturated and continuous flooding), soil textures (clay and silt loam), and cultivars (Cocodrie and Rondo) including their interactions on rice growth, development, grain yield and harvest index. Normal flowering duration of Rondo was sustained with the presence of floodwater at flowering stage. Grain filling duration was longer in aerobic water regime under silt loam soil. Longer maturity in aerobic water regime was affected by water stress during grain filling stage and not at early vegetative stage until flowering. Grain yield of Rondo was higher by 22% and had greater plant height, tiller count and biomass when planted in clay soil. Harvest index of Cocodrie was higher by 70% compared to Rondo. Grain yield of Rondo was best if flooded continuously while Cocodrie can equally produce grain in aerobic, saturated and flooded water regimes. Growing Cocodrie in clay soil with aerobic water regime is a good option to save more water without significant yield losses. With foreseeing drought and limited water supply for rice production, our study suggests that water regime is the major factor to be considered before selecting rice cultivars to be grown at varying soil textures.
    4 months ago by @mdashikurr
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    The cork oak is native forest species, the most represented in Tunisia and especially to Mogods Kroumirie. This species is considerable regression estimated at 1.22% of the area per year . Natural regeneration of cork oak seedlings and by rejecting strain encounters strong difficulties mainly because of the great mortality among seedlings. The failure of this regeneration is mainly caused by environmental conditions characteristic of the Mediterranean climate (long dry seasons with hot winds and high temperatures) and by predation and anthropogenic factors. Our study is to analyse the physiological and biochemical responses of seedlings of cork oak, subjected to moderate and severe water stress, which was conducted in nurseries in Tunis in twelve populations of cork oak. The various treatments are used to test the tolerance of the cork oak plants to water stress by biochemical markers such as proline, sugars and starch. The accumulation of sugars is characteristic of woody plants in difficult environmental conditions, as in our experimentation proline and starch can be regarded as a biochemical marker of stress to the cork oak.
    4 months ago by @mdashikurr
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    http://gotwetwedry.com/ Commercial Cleaning & Restoration provides emergency water damage cleanup andrestoration in Tucson and the surrounding areas.
    4 months ago by @geyanizs
     
      CleanupTucsonWater
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      Water deficit stress is a major abiotic factor that limits crop production. Hence plant Nutrition can have play-determining role in moderating the adverse effects of water deficit stress. This research was conducted as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with zinc (Zn) at three levels (0, 10 and 20 mg Zn per kg dries soil as ZnSO4•7H2O), phosphorus (P) at three levels (0, 30 and 60 mg P per kg dry soil as Calcium (Ca) (H2PO4)2•H2O) and soil moisture at three levels (0.5FC-0.6FC, 0.7FC-0.8FC and 0.9FC-FC) using three replications under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the moderate (0.7FC-0.8FC) and severe water deficit conditions (0.5FC-0.6FC) decreased significantly activity of peroxidase isozymes (POX) than to the enzyme activity in full irrigated (0.9FC-FC) conditions (P< 0.01).The higher activity of peroxidase isozymes appeared in POX1 under the moderate water deficit condition and the lowest related to POX5 isozyme under severe water deficit condition. In addition, the main effect of Zn and two way interaction of Zn × soil moisture were significant on the enzymatic activity of POX2, POX3 and POX4 isozymes. The highest activity of peroxidase isozymes resulted for POX2 at application of10 mg Zn per kg of soil. The two ways interaction of soil moisture × Zn for POX3, POX2 and POX4 showed that the effect of Zn application on these esozymes were significant only under severe water deficit condition the highest activity of POX2 and POX3 were obtained at application of 10 mg Zn per kg dried soil and for POX4 under using of 20 mg Zn per kg soil condition.
      5 months ago by @mdashikurr
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      The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the microbial parameters of Elobeid drinking water supply systems, which comprise of Bara underground water system and the surface rainwater harvesting (RWH) system, during the period from July 2010–June 2011. Four samples from Bara and nine from RWH were collected. The microbial parameters were determined using different microbial techniques. The results showed that the mean total viable bacterial (TVC) and spore-forming bacteria counts in the RWH system were ranged as 80.26-1030.11 and 82.8-3479.8 cfu/ml, respectively and 4.67-110.5 and 0.83- 292.5 cfu/ml, respectively in Bara. Moreover, high counts of coliforms, faecal coliforms; faecal Streptococci, Salmonella, Staphylococci, Clostridia and Cyanobacteria were recorded in the RWH system, particularly during the rainy months (June–September), which not in agreement with international or local standards for drinking water. The predominant bacteria in the two water supply systems were Bacillus (6 species) Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter alvi, Proteus vulgaris, E. coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecium and Streptococcus faecalis, in addition to many Cyanobacterial genera: Lyngbya, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Synechocystis, Anabaena, Leptolyngbya, Dermocarpa, Aphanizomenon, Schizothrix and Phormidium. The presence of those harmful bacteria in water before and after treatment in the RWH system indicated that water treatment measures adopted by the North Kordofan State Water Corporation (coagulation, sand filtration and disinfection by chlorination) do not guarantee acceptable levels of water disinfection. To alleviate these problems, blending of the two water systems and subsequent treatments to reduce microbial load were suggested as recommended point of view.
      5 months ago by @mdashikurr
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      Provides ecoregion maps of almost all freshwater habitats on Earth together with associated species data.
      a year ago by @danielle.dennie
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      Anyone who's dropped a cellphone in the bath knows that water and microelectronics don't usually mix well. But at IBM's Swiss lab in Zurich, marrying the two is becoming almost commonplace: microprocessors with water coursing through microchannels carved deep inside them are already crunching data in SuperMUC, an IBM supercomputer - with the heat that the water carries away used to warm nearby buildings.
      2 years ago by @tennocrama
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    publications  290