Locations of calmodulin and FK506-binding protein on the three-dimensional architecture of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.
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J. Biol. Chem. 272 (51): 32463--32471 (December 1997)

Isolated skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors (RyRs) complexed with the modulatory ligands, calmodulin (CaM) or 12-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), have been characterized by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction. RyRs are composed of 4 large subunits (molecular mass 565 kDa) that assemble to form a 4-fold symmetric complex that, architecturally, comprises two major substructures, a large ( approximately 80\% of the total mass) cytoplasmic assembly and a smaller transmembrane assembly. Both CaM and FKBP12 bind to the cytoplasmic assembly at sites that are 10 and 12 nm, respectively, from the putative entrance to the transmembrane ion channel. FKBP12 binds along the edge of the square-shaped cytoplasmic assembly near the face that interacts in vivo with the sarcolemma/transverse tubule membrane system, whereas CaM binds within a cleft that faces the junctional face of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane at the triad junction. Both ligands interact with a domain that connects directly to a cytoplasmic extension of the transmembrane assembly of the receptor, and thus might cause structural changes in the domain which in turn modulate channel gating.
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