Herein, we report the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles as a potent tool to induce the neuronal differentiation of subventricular zone neural stem cells. The intracellular delivery of retinoic acid by the nanoparticles activated nuclear retinoic acid receptors, decreased stemness, and increased proneurogenic gene expression. Importantly, this work reports for the first time a nanoparticle formulation able to modulate in vivo the subventricular zone neurogenic niche. The work further compares the dynamics of initial stages of differentiation between SVZ cells treated with retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles and solubilized retinoic acid. The nanoparticle formulation developed here may ultimately offer new perspectives to treat neurodegenerative diseases.