We present the first deep learning model to successfully learn control
policies directly from high-dimensional sensory input using reinforcement
learning. The model is a convolutional neural network, trained with a variant
of Q-learning, whose input is raw pixels and whose output is a value function
estimating future rewards. We apply our method to seven Atari 2600 games from
the Arcade Learning Environment, with no adjustment of the architecture or
learning algorithm. We find that it outperforms all previous approaches on six
of the games and surpasses a human expert on three of them.