As many of the latest technologists have predicted, Self-driving autonomous cars are going to be the future in the transportation sector. Many of the billion dollar companies including Google, Uber, Apple, NVIDIA, and Tesla are pioneering in this field to invent fully autonomous vehicles. This paper presents a literature review on some of the important segments in an autonomous vehicle development arena which touches real time embedded systems applications. This paper surveyed research papers on the technologies used in autonomous vehicles which includes lane detection, traffic signal identification, and speed bump detection. The paper focuses on the significance of image processing and real time embedded systems in driving the automotive industry towards autonomy and high security pathways.