Estimating the Information Gap Between Textual and Visual Representations
C. Henning, and R. Ewerth. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval, page 14--22. New York, NY, USA, ACM, (2017)
Photos, drawings, figures, etc. supplement textual information in various kinds of media, for example, in web news or scientific publications. In this respect, the intended effect of an image can be quite different, e.g., providing additional information, focusing on certain details of surrounding text, or simply being a general illustration of a topic. As a consequence, the semantic correlation between information of different modalities can vary noticeably, too. Moreover, cross-modal interrelations are often hard to describe in a precise way. The variety of possible interrelations of textual and graphical information and the question, how they can be described and automatically estimated have not been addressed yet by previous work. In this paper, we present several contributions to close this gap. First, we introduce two measures to describe cross-modal interrelations: cross-modal mutual information (CMI) and semantic correlation (SC). Second, a novel approach relying on deep learning is suggested to estimate CMI and SC of textual and visual information. Third, three diverse datasets are leveraged to learn an appropriate deep neural network model for the demanding task. The system has been evaluated on a challenging test set and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.