Research Update: Recombination and open-circuit voltage in lead-halide perovskites
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APL Materials 6 (10): 100702-- (October 2018)

The high open-circuit voltage and the slow recombination in lead-halide perovskite solar cells has been one of the main contributors to their success as photovoltaic materials. Here, we review the knowledge on recombination in perovskite-based solar cells, compare the situation with silicon solar cells, and introduce the parameters used to describe recombination and open-circuit voltage losses in solar cells. We first discuss the effect of lifetimes and surface recombination velocities on photovoltaic performance before we study the microscopic origin of charge-carrier lifetimes. The lifetimes depend on defect positions and densities and on the kinetic prefactors that control the phonon-assisted interaction between the extended states in the conduction and valence band and the localized defect states. We finally argue that the key to understand the long lifetimes and high open-circuit voltages is a combination of a low density of deep defects and a slow dissipation of energy via multiphonon processes due ...
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