Linear and nonlinear model of the human middle ear
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Acoustical Society of America (1998)

The measurement of the middle ear transfer function usually requires invasive methods. An equivalent analog equivalent model enables us to evaluate its characteristics without damaging any part of the ear. A linear and a nonlinear model of the middle ear have been developed to predict intracochlear pressure and the stapes volume velocity for various sound pressure levels (SPL). The linear model results have been compared with human eardrum impedance and middle ear transfer function data. The nonlinear phenomena due to the contraction of the stapedius muscle over 80 dB and to the stapes clipping displacement above 120 dB are represented by a set of variable electrical components. The model of the acoustic reflex is based on experimental observations. The study of the annular ligament behavior was performed on cats and extrapolated to humans with some hypothetical restrictions. These approximations provide information on the middle ear transfer function and enable us to better understand the nonlinear middle ear mechanisms in an intense acoustic field.
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