The purpose of this study is to examine whether pre-service teachers studying classroom management (CM) in a virtual reality (VR)-supported setting enhance their CM competencies more than students do in a setting using conventional methods. With this aim in mind and to address a lack of available situations of practicing and reflecting CM competencies besides simply gaining theoretical knowledge about CM in education, we integrated a novel fully immersive VR application in selected CM courses. We evaluated the development of self-assessed and instructor-rated CM competencies and the learning quality in the different learning conditions. Additionally, we evaluated the presence, social presence, believability and utility of the VR application and the VR-assisted and video-assisted course. Participants were pre-service teachers (n = 55) of the university of XXX who participated in a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test intervention. The students were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups: the test group used ProjectName during the term (n = 39), and the comparison group's learning was video-assisted (n = 16). The instructor rating shows significant differences between the VR group and the video group, the two points of measurement and for the interaction between the condition and time of measurement. It demonstrates a highly significant improvement in CM competencies in the VR setting between the pre-test and post-test (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.06) as compared to the video-based setting. The participants of the VR setting themselves rated their CM competencies in the post-test significantly higher than in the pre-test (p = 0.02, Cohen's d = 0.39). Interestingly, the video group also rated themselves better in the post-test (p = 0.02, Cohen's d = 0.67), which reveals that self-assessment and external assessment show different results. In addition, we observed that even if both groups gained similar theoretical knowledge, the CM competencies developed to a greater degree in the VR-based settings. The participants rated the CM training system a useful tool to evaluate and reflect on individual teacher actions. Its immersion contributes to a high presence and the simulation of realistic scenarios in a CM course. These findings suggest that VR-based settings can lead to a higher benefit in the enhancement of pre-service teachers' CM competencies.