Interactive Systems Based on Electrical Muscle Stimulation

, and . Computer 50 (10): 28--35 (October 2017)


Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) has been used since the 1960s in rehabilitative medicine to regenerate lost motor functions, but in recent years researchers have started to explore new EMS applications including guided training, muscle-propelled force feedback for more immersive virtual experiences, and novel forms of information access. The authors analyze the interactive potential of EMS and compare it to more traditional mechanical actuation. The web extra at https://youtu.be/YA0mv9X9Ncw demonstrates Muscle-plotter, an interactive system that combines EMS with a motion-tracking digital pen.

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