A Generic Complete Dynamic Logic for Reasoning about Purity and Effects
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Formal Aspects of Computing 22 (3-4): 363-384 (2010)

For a number of programming languages, among them Eiffel, C, Java, and Ruby, Hoare-style logics and dynamic logics have been developed. In these logics, pre- and postconditions are typically formulated using potentially effectful programs. In order to ensure that these pre- and postconditions behave like logical formulae (that is, enjoy some kind of referential transparency), a notion of purity is needed. Here, we introduce a generic framework for reasoning about purity and effects. Effects are modelled abstractly and axiomatically, using Moggi’s idea of encapsulation of effects as monads.We introduce a dynamic logic (from which, as usual, a Hoare logic can be derived) whose logical formulae are pure programs in a strong sense. We formulate a set of proof rules for this logic, and prove it to be complete with respect to a categorical semantics. Using dynamic logic, we then develop a relaxed notion of purity which allows for observationally neutral effects such writing on newly allocated memory.
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