A complex karyotype, detected in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), is associated with a reduced median survival. The most frequent chromosomal aberrations in complex karyotypes are deletions of 5q and 17p harboring the tumor suppressor gene TP53. The unbalanced translocation der(5;17) involving chromosome 5q and 17p is a recurrent aberration in MDS/AML, resulting in TP53 loss. We analyzed the karyotypes of 178 patients with an unbalanced translocation der(5;17) using fluorescence R−/G-banding analysis. Whenever possible, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (n = 138/141), multicolor FISH (n = 8), telomere length measurement (n = 9), targeted DNA sequencing (n = 13), array-CGH (n = 7) and targeted RNA sequencing (n = 2) were conducted. The der(5;17) aberration was accompanied with loss of genetic material in 7q (53%), −7 (27%), gain of 21q (29%), +8 (17%) and − 18 (16%) and all analyzed patients (n = 13) showed a (likely) pathogenic variant inTP53. The der(5;17) cohort showed significantly shortened telomeres in comparison to the healthy age-matched controls (P < .05), but there was no significant telomere shortening in comparison to MDS/AML patients with a complex karyotype without der(5;17). No fusion genes resulted from the unbalanced translocation. This study demonstrates that the unbalanced translocation der(5;17) is associated with a biallelic inactivation of TP53 due to a deletion of TP53 in one allele and a pathogenic variant of the second TP53 allele. Since the breakpoints are located within (near-) heterochromatic regions, alterations of DNA methylation or histone modifications may be involved in the generation of der(5;17).
Unbalanced translocation der(5;17) resulting in a TP53 loss as recurrent aberration in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with complex karyotype - Warnstorf - 2021 - Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer - Wiley Online Library