The emergence of systems biology is bringing forth a new set of challenges for advancing science and technology. Defining ways of studying biological systems on a global level, integrating large and disparate data types, and dealing with the infrastructural changes necessary to carry out systems biology, are just a few of the extraordinary tasks of this growing discipline. Despite these challenges, the impact of systems biology will be far-reaching, and significant progress has already been made. Moving forward, the issue of how to use systems biology to improve the health of individuals must be a priority. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the field of systems biology and one of its important disciplines, proteomics, will have a major role in creating a predictive, preventative, and personalized approach to medicine. In this review, we define systems biology, discuss the current capabilities of proteomics and highlight some of the necessary milestones for moving systems biology and proteomics into mainstream health care.