Recent advances in bone tissue engineering are established on the
understanding of an engineered scaffold, the molecular milieu within
the osteogenic site, and the cell(s) predisposed to an osteogenic
lineage. Advances in the incorporation of a generative vehicle into
a skeletal defect require temporal and spatial distribution of the
scaffold, growth factor, and cell compatible with enhanced bone healing.
Monitoring events culminating in osteogenesis has focused on phenotypic
and intracellular indicators. Phenotypic and intracellular indicators
include the presence of receptors and intracellular signals that
enable cell proliferation and differentiation. Progress in the areas
of scaffold design, growth factor utilization, bone cell lineage,
and intracellular signaling are reviewed.