Stereotactic surgery was first described for functional exploration of animal brains in 1908. It has been used in human neurosurgery for almost forty years, primarily for the accurate placement of subcortical probes for the production of therapeutic lesions in the treatment of movement disorders and pain. After the introduction of L-Dopa in 1968, enthusiasm diminished for the technique. In the past ten years, primarily due to the development of new imaging technologies, stereotaxis has enjoyed a renaissance as new applications have been described. Stereotactic surgery may be utilized for neuro-ablative and neuro-augmentative procedures. It can also be useful in the diagnosis of brain tumours by stereotactic biopsy and for treatment of subcortical neoplasms by interstitial irradiation or computer-assisted stereotactic laser resection. With the development of computer technology, many new procedures, refinements of old procedures, and development of new applications are possible.