But What About... Cosmic Rays, Magnetic Fields, Conduction, & Viscosity in Galaxy Formation
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(2019)cite arxiv:1905.04321Comment: 33 pages, 23 figures, submitted to MNRAS.

We present a suite of high-resolution cosmological simulations, using the FIRE-2 feedback physics together with explicit treatment of magnetic fields, anisotropic conduction and viscosity, and cosmic rays (CRs) injected by supernovae (including anisotropic diffusion, streaming, adiabatic, hadronic and Coulomb losses). We survey systems from ultra-faint dwarf ($M_\ast\sim 10^4\,M_ødot$, $M_halo10^9\,M_ødot$) through Milky Way masses, systematically vary CR parameters (e.g. the diffusion coefficient $\kappa$ and streaming velocity), and study an ensemble of galaxy properties (masses, star formation histories, mass profiles, phase structure, morphologies). We confirm previous conclusions that magnetic fields, conduction, and viscosity on resolved ($1\,$pc) scales have small effects on bulk galaxy properties. CRs have relatively weak effects on all galaxy properties studied in dwarfs ($M_\ast 10^10\,M_ødot$, $M_\rm halo 10^11\,M_ødot$), or at high redshifts ($z1-2$), for any physically-reasonable parameters. However at higher masses ($M_halo 10^11\,M_ødot$) and $z1-2$, CRs can suppress star formation by factors $2-4$, given relatively high effective diffusion coefficients $3\times10^29\,cm^2\,s^-1$. At lower $\kappa$, CRs take too long to escape dense star-forming gas and lose energy to hadronic collisions, producing negligible effects on galaxies and violating empirical constraints from $\gamma$-ray emission. But around $\kappa\sim 3\times10^29\,cm^2\,s^-1$, CRs escape the galaxy and build up a CR-pressure-dominated halo which supports dense, cool ($T10^6$\,K) gas that would otherwise rain onto the galaxy. CR heating (from collisional and streaming losses) is never dominant.
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