Glaucoma is a group of ocular diseases marked with elevated intraocular pressure IOP, reduced visual acuity, optic neuropathies and the corresponding visual field defects. Its etiology is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess Helicobacter pylori bacteria in glaucoma disease patients. The infection of H. pylori was associated with glaucoma by detecting serum IgG antibody against H. pylori qualitatively using immunochromatographic method; and also by isolating the organism from media cultures of fresh faecal samples of the glaucoma patients. In a total of 217 glaucoma patients, 212 (97.7%) were IgG serum positive; while only 25 (13.89%) of the 180 control was IgG positive P<.001. H. pylori was successfully cultured in 202 (95.3%) feacal samples of these 212 seropositives. The 202 isolates were all Gram negative and produced the enzymes catalase, oxidase and urease. They were highly motile; and poor in the hydrolysis of indoxyl acetate and hippurate (4.9% and 4.4% respectively). They poorly fermented sugar, 7.4% for sucrose and glaucose and 12.3% for lactose. In the antibiotics susceptibility pattern, H. pylori was most resistant to vancomycin 66.8% (135 of the 202) and metronidazole 44.5% (90 of the 202); while H. pylori was most sensitive to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin by 94% and 91.5% respectively. The biochemical characteristics and the antibiotics resistant marker for claritromycin are chromosomal while the resistant marker for amoxicillin was plasmid located. In conclusion, H. pylori infection is associated with the risk for glaucoma development in the population. Clinicians who care for patients with H. pylori infection should also consider that H. pylori can cause not only digestive illness but also eye disease. This association offers a novel approach towards the care for glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness.