Increased plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a surrogate marker for optimal therapeutic dosing of VEGF receptor-2 monoclonal antibodies
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Cancer Res. 64 (18): 6616-6625 (2004)

A major obstacle compromising the successful application of many of the new targeted anticancer drugs, including angiogenesis inhibitors, is the empiricism associated with determining an effective biological/therapeutic dose because many of these drugs express optimum therapeutic activity below the maximum tolerated dose, if such a dose can be defined. Hence, surrogate markers are needed to help determine optimal dosing. Here we describe such a molecular marker, increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in normal or tumor-bearing mice that received injections of an anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 monoclonal antibody, such as DC101. Rapid increases of mouse VEGF (e.g., within 24 hours) up to 1 order of magnitude were observed after single injections of DC101 in non-tumor-bearing severe combined immunodeficient or nude mice; similar increases in human plasma VEGF were detected in human tumor-bearing mice. RAFL-1, another anti-VEGFR-2 antibody, also caused a signi
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