The construction and modulation of cognitive maps relies on spatial information. Their analysis is essential to understand the orientation and navigation behavior in humans. Empirical studies within the interdisciplinary cooperation of Professor Dickmann at Ruhr-University Bochum and Professor Kuchinke at the International Psychoanalytical University Berlin focus on the investigation of spatial memory and navigation performance, from a cognitive and a geographic perspective. Several studies found out that the design of topographic maps has a systematical influence on spatial memory performance. Within the frame of the Priority Programme SSP 1894 ``Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI): Interpretation, Visualisation and Social Computing'', which is funded by the German Research Foundation with a term of 3 years, similar effects of landmarks and landmarks configurations will be investigated. Selected landmarks and, in particular, patterns of landmarks building geometric shapes are expected to guide spatial attention and support individual wayfinding strategies. Identifying landmark patterns will lay the foundations for automatic extraction processes and mobile map design.