All of these samples perform essentially the same task: traverse an array of strings and print each value to stdout. Of course, the C++ example is actually using a vector rather than an array due to the evil nature of C/C++ arrays, but it comes to the same thing. Passing over the differences in syntax between these four languages, what really stands out are the different ways in which the task is performed. C++ and Java are both using iterators, while Ruby and Scala are making use of higher order functions. Ruby and C++ both use lowercase variables separated by underscores, while Java and Scala share the camelCase convention. This is a bit of a trivial example, but it does open the door to a much more interesting discussion: what are these idioms in Scala’s case? Scala is a very new language which has yet to see truly wide-spread adoption. More than that, Scala is fundamentally different from what has come before.