A partial index is an index built over a subset of a table; the subset is defined by a conditional expression (called the predicate of the partial index). The index contains entries for only those table rows that satisfy the predicate.
CREATE INDEX access_log_client_ip_ix ON access_log (client_ip)
WHERE NOT (client_ip > inet '192.168.100.0' AND client_ip < inet '192.168.100.255');
Probably the only valid reason for using
is when you're writing queries and want to quickly see what the query plan would actually be were there large amounts of data in the table(s).