In both lying and truth-telling, the speaker intends the audience to believe what she says is true; that her enterprise is to inform her audience. In contrast, the speaker who bullshits doesn’t care whether the audience believes what she says, rather she intends her audience to believe or do something else—to think highly of her, to buy what she is selling, or the like.
I argue that nudging is incompatible with securing genuine informed consent.2 I assume, but do not argue, that informed consent requires truth-telling during adequate disclosure. When a physician nudges, her intention is to irrationally influence her patient’s choice, not inform. Because of this, nudging cannot be understood as truth-telling (even when the nudger says only true things); rather it is essentially bullshit.1. To read the full article, log in using your NHS OpenAthens details.