bookmarks  52

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    Confusion about Services Based Architectures [SBA, SOA, EDA, ...] has been created by a number of industry elements. Industry critics like Forrester first used the term Services Based Architecture until 2000 when Gartner came up with their own term Services Oriented Architectures (SOA).  Forrester was still using the term SBA in 2002. Gartner next created the term Event Driven Architecture and has now come full circle back to SOA 2.0 (supporting both SOA and EDA like the original SBA).
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    Enterprise architecture is a management practice that was initially developed within the IT discipline to manage the complexity of IT systems, as well as the ongoing change constantly triggered by business and technology developments. Today, one of the primary reasons EA is adopted in organizations worldwide is to promote alignment between business requirements and IT solutions. EA is expanding into other business disciplines, as well: to enable business strategy development, improve business efficiency, facilitate knowledge management and assist with organizational learning, to name a few. In order to effectively implement EA in organizations, architects are increasingly looking for best practices and frameworks to assist them. One of the few architecture frameworks publicly available to guide architects in their implementation is TOGAF. Put simply, TOGAF is a comprehensive toolset for assisting in the acceptance, production, use and maintenance of enterprise architectures. It is based on an iterative process model supported by best practices and a reusable set of existing architectural assets. Since it was developed by members of The Open Group Architecture Forum more than 10 years ago, TOGAF has emerged as arguably the de facto standard framework for delivering enterprise architecture.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    In the book The Art of War for Executives, Donald G. Krause interprets the following: “Sun Tsu notes, superior commanders succeed in situations where ordinary people fail because they obtain more timely information and use it more quickly.” For metadata professionals, this observation is increasingly relevant as more and more of the business seeks integration and federation, alignment with business goals and strategies, and agility - the ability to respond both quickly and accurately to change. Industry analysts and IT professionals are less focused on solutions to problems where metadata management plays a role but rather look more to metadata management as an overall strategy for the benefits it provides to multiple aspects of the whole organization.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    One common problem I see in the IT industry is the qualification of IT decisions. I talk to architects from all around the world and hear a lot of creative and innovate ways of solving problems. More often than not, what I don’t hear is more concerning. When I have asked: Why did we approach the problem in this manner? How does this align to the business? Does this fulfill the business, functional and non-functional requirements Why is this the optimal architecture? Obviously there are a lot of other questions, but to keep this concise above are some sample questions. The last question is particularly interesting. I have heard  a broad range of fluffy answers such as: “trust me, I know what I am doing”, “I have been doing this for 20 years, I know how to do this”, “I am the expert of [X]”. All of these responses may be completely true but doesn’t quantify the solution. It doesn’t demonstrate that there was a process or a clear level of due diligence that was performed.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    TOGAF defines "enterprise" as any collection of organizations that has a common set of goals. For example, an enterprise could be a government agency, a whole corporation, a division of a corporation, a single department, or a chain of geographically distant organizations linked together by common ownership. The term "enterprise" in the context of "enterprise architecture" can be used to denote both an entire enterprise - encompassing all of its information and technology services, processes, and infrastructure - and a specific domain within the enterprise. In both cases, the architecture crosses multiple systems, and multiple functional groups within the enterprise. Confusion often arises from the evolving nature of the term "enterprise". An extended enterprise nowadays frequently includes partners, suppliers, and customers. If the goal is to integrate an extended enterprise, then the enterprise comprises the partners, suppliers, and customers, as well as internal business units. The business operating model concept is useful to determine the nature and scope of the enterprise architecture within an organization. Large corporations and government agencies may comprise multiple enterprises, and may develop and maintain a number of independent enterprise architectures to address each one. However, there is often much in common about the information systems in each enterprise, and there is usually great potential for gain in the use of a common architecture framework. For example, a common framework can provide a basis for the development of an Architecture Repository for the integration and re-use of models, designs, and baseline data.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    On Event Processing Agents implies  a “new” event processing reference architecture with terms like,   (1) simple event processing agents for filtering and routing, (2)  mediated event processing agents for event enrichment, transformation, validation, (3) complex event processing agents for pattern detection, and (4) intelligent event processing agents for prediction, decisions. Frankly, while I generally agree with the concepts, I think the terms in On Event Processing Agents tend to add to the confusion because these concepts in On Event Processing Agents are following, almost exactly, the same reference architecture (and terms) for MSDF, illustrated again below to aid the reader.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    The success of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) has created the foundation for information and service sharing across application and organizational boundaries. Through the use of SOA, organizations are demanding solutions that provide vast scalability, increased reusability of business services, and greater efficiency of computing resources. More importantly, organizations need agile architectures that can adapt to rapidly changing business requirements without the long development cycles that are typically associated with these efforts. Event-Driven Architecture (EDA) has emerged to provide more sophisticated capabilities that address these dynamic environments. EDA enables business agility by empowering software engineers with complex processing techniques to develop substantial functionality in days or weeks rather than months or years. As a result, EDA is positioned to enhance the business value of SOA. The purpose of this white paper is to describe the approach employed to overcome the significant technical challenges required to design a dynamic grid computing architecture for a US government program. The program required optimization of the overall business process while maximizing scalability to support dramatic increases in throughput. To realize this goal, an architecture was developed to support the dynamic placement and removal of business services across the enterprise.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    Multiple channels and types of events… … executing in multiple Inference Agents (Event Processing Agents on an Event Processing Network)… … where Events drive Production Rules with associated (shared) data… … and event patterns (complex events) are derived from the simple events and also drive Production Rules via inferencing… … to lead to “real-time” decisions.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    Service-oriented architecture has proven to be a boon in the computing world. At its core, SOA provides enterprise patterns for systems development and integration where legacy systems are viewed as discrete business capabilities and packaged as standards-based services interfaces. SOA also typically describes an IT infrastructure that allows different applications to exchange data with one another as they participate within business processes. Over the past few years, SOA has grown almost exponentially in popularity, becoming one way for companies to knit together applications and processes in a flexible, reusable and cost-effective way. SOA separates functions into distinct units, or services, which developers make accessible to users over a network, ideally allowing them to combine and reuse them in the creation of business applications. These services communicate with each other by passing data from one service to another or by coordinating an activity between two or more services.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    Rob sees three key areas where rules can help: Tighter warranty controls Claims processing is improved because financial limits, detailed coverage types, materials return and more can be automated and rapidly changed when necessary. The rules also allow “what-if” testing and impact analysis. Better built vehicles The decision making is tracked very closely thanks to rules so you can analyze specific repair types, specific VINs and so on. More effective parts return and generally better information also contribute. Lower cost repairs Rules allow goodwill repairs, labor-only repairs and specific kinds of repairs to be managed very precisely. Rules-driven decisioning can reduce the variation of costs between dealers and help intervene, rejecting or editing claims that seem overly expensive. The ability of rules to deploy data mining and predictive analytics can also really help here.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    As the link between business and IT strategy, the enterprise architecture outlines the framework for IT solutions. The EA describes IT structures, standards, processes and shared corporate services. The task of an EA is to support the business areas and IT experts in shared planning processes and in the comprehensive further development of the IT architecture. Detecon decided to use TOGAF from Open Group as an open and widely accepted standard as basis for our architecture work. A comprehensive experience from successful projects at customers with different size and industry demonstrates the benefits of that strong methodology. Based on TOGAF basic structures, Detecon enhanced the methodology in different areas, e.g. the finance and controlling, business cases, governance or SOA migration strategy, and applies those successfully. Detecon trains architects in the TOGAF framework with the following goals: To accelerate architecture development at their companies To reduce complexity in planning heterogeneous best-of-breed systems To secure the implementation of all requirements To ensure security for the future To provide a tool for improved communication of goals and strategies for business units and managers.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    TOGAF 9 encompasses the entire enterprise architecture life cycle, which is important as architecture is a never ending journey, always changing and evolving. The figure below depicts the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) which covers the entire architecture life cycle.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    The Open Group released TOGAF 9 earlier this month. All the details are available on the Open Group website for those who are interested. This post briefly shares the highlights and differences but is not a complete indepth analysis. Version 9  builds on Version 8.1.1 with quite a bit that is new and is a significant milestone for TOGAF. It now comprises seven parts: Introduction Architecture development method (ADM) ADM guidelines and techniques   New! Architecture content framework    New! Architectural reference models   Architectural capability framework    New!
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is a framework - a detailed method and a set of supporting tools - for developing an enterprise architecture. It may be used freely by any organization wishing to develop an enterprise architecture for use within that organization (see Conditions of Use). TOGAF is developed and maintained by members of The Open Group, working within the Architecture Forum (refer to www.opengroup.org/architecture). The original development of TOGAF Version 1 in 1995 was based on the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM), developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD). The DoD gave The Open Group explicit permission and encouragement to create TOGAF by building on the TAFIM, which itself was the result of many years of development effort and many millions of dollars of US Government investment. Starting from this sound foundation, the members of The Open Group Architecture Forum have developed successive versions of TOGAF and published each one on The Open Group public web site. If you are new to the field of enterprise architecture and/or TOGAF, you are recommended to read the Executive Overview (refer to Executive Overview), where you will find answers to questions such as: What is enterprise architecture? Why do I need an enterprise architecture? Why do I need TOGAF as a framework for enterprise architecture?
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    ebruary second the Open Group released a new version of its framework TOGAF 9. TOGAF started out as a Technical Infrastructure Framework, started by the US Department of Defense in 1995 with TOGAF 1, and has grown out to a full framework for enterprise architecture in TOGAF version 9. So why do you need a framework like TOGAF 9. From its origin IT was introduced to speedup business process so companies could make more money faster. Somewhere along the way IT became a technology driven, self sustaining machine where we all needed more gadgets without contributing to the added business value. Enterprise architecture is one of the ways to get the primary goal of IT back within normal costs and in control for a organization.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    The image above show the segments or classification of these standards. By asking basic questions such as How, What, When, Who and Why we can also simplify this a bit. Starting from the bottom up lets talk about what was discussed and I'll add some of my thoughts as well.
    10 years ago by @cschie
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    Below are the new features of TOGAF 9. The bolded text is what was provided by the Open Group. The regular text is my commentary on it. Modular structure – I am a firm believer that enterprise processes are modular pieces that should be orchestrated based on the specific set of concerns. It is good to see that TOGAF feels the same way. Promotes greater usability & encourages incremental adoption – This is somewhat lofty and subject largely to implementation details. I do agree that the guidance provided does promote reusability. This is reinforced with the first bullet on the modular structure. Supports evolutionary release management - Content framework – This is a significant step in the right direction. The content framework provides architects with a map of information that is needed. From what I have seen so far there isn’t a great amount of detail here. But I am sure there is more to come. Extended guidance on using TOGAF – The TOGAF book was expanded greatly with new guidance that extends the base concepts of TOGAF and supports new features. Explicit consideration of architectural styles – In the guidance there are linkages between the TOGAF ADM and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). I am hoping that this isn’t a tight coupling. If you are interested in my thoughts on architectural styles I wrote a post on this not too long ago. See the post What is an Architecture Style?   SOA and Security – This could be interesting. But only if done right. The Open Group needs to be careful at balancing out too much in the developer details (what OASIS & W3C provides) and high level / nebulous guidance (Analyst firms) that isn’t actionable. What could be of great value is if the Open Group embarked on true architectural patterns and styles that would aid SOA and EA architects on choosing the right architectural strategies. Further detail added to the Architecture Development Method (ADM)
    10 years ago by @cschie
     
      ADMTOGAFarchitecture
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