One consequence has been the expansion of private higher education options in Brazil. While private universities affiliated with the Catholic Church date back to the 1600s, they have, particularly since the 1990s, made significant strides in strengthening curricula and becoming more engaged at home and internationally. PUC-Rio, a Jesuit-affiliated university, has become one of the most internationally recognized institutions of higher education in Brazil. Mackenzie Presbyterian University, founded by an American attorney at the end of the 19th century, is another private not-for-profit institution that enjoys a strong reputation abroad. Additionally, Brazil has one of the world’s most important academic think tanks, Fundacao Getulio Vargas (FGV), which trains public and private sector managers, and also engages in world-class policy research, often in collaboration with some of the world’s top universities.