Various analytic observations on combinations
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(November 2007)

E158 in the Enestrom index. Translation of the Latin original Öbservationes analyticae variae de combinationibus" (1741). This paper introduces the problem of partitions, or partitio numerorum (the partition of integers). In the first part of the paper Euler looks at infinite symmetric functions. He defines three types of series: the first denoted with capital Latin letters are sums of powers, e.g. \$A=a+b+c+...\$, \$B=a^2+b^2+c^3+...\$, etc.; the second denoted with lower case Greek letters are the elementary symmetric functions; the third denoted with Germanic letters are sums of all combinations of \$n\$ symbols, e.g. \$A=a+b+c+...\$ is the series for \$n=1\$, \$B=a^2+ab+b^2+ac+bc+c^2+...\$ is the series for \$n=2\$, etc. Euler proves a lot of relations between these series. He defines some infinite products and proves some more relations between the products and these series. Then in \S 17 he looks at the particular case where \$a=n,b=n^2,c=n^3\$ etc. In \S 19 he says the Naudé has proposed studying the number of ways to break an integer into a certain number of parts. Euler proves his recurrence relations for the number of partitions into a \$\mu\$ parts with repetition and without repetition. Finally at the end of the paper Euler states the pentagonal number theorem, but says he hasn't been able to prove it rigorously.
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