We propose two efficient approximations to standard convolutional neural
networks: Binary-Weight-Networks and XNOR-Networks. In Binary-Weight-Networks,
the filters are approximated with binary values resulting in 32x memory saving.
In XNOR-Networks, both the filters and the input to convolutional layers are
binary. XNOR-Networks approximate convolutions using primarily binary
operations. This results in 58x faster convolutional operations and 32x memory
savings. XNOR-Nets offer the possibility of running state-of-the-art networks
on CPUs (rather than GPUs) in real-time. Our binary networks are simple,
accurate, efficient, and work on challenging visual tasks. We evaluate our
approach on the ImageNet classification task. The classification accuracy with
a Binary-Weight-Network version of AlexNet is only 2.9% less than the
full-precision AlexNet (in top-1 measure). We compare our method with recent
network binarization methods, BinaryConnect and BinaryNets, and outperform
these methods by large margins on ImageNet, more than 16% in top-1 accuracy.