New insights and perspectives on the natural gradient method
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(2014)cite arxiv:1412.1193Comment: Many small revisions/corrections throughout , Added a section on 2nd-order methods and future work.

Natural gradient descent is an optimization method traditionally motivated from the perspective of information geometry, and works well for many applications as an alternative to stochastic gradient descent. In this paper we critically analyze this method and its properties, and show how it can be viewed as a type of approximate 2nd-order optimization method, where the Fisher information matrix can be viewed as an approximation of the Hessian. This perspective turns out to have significant implications for how to design a practical and robust version of the method. Additionally, we make the following contributions to the understanding of natural gradient and 2nd-order methods: a thorough analysis of the convergence speed of stochastic natural gradient descent (and more general stochastic 2nd-order methods) as applied to convex quadratics, a critical examination of the oft-used "empirical" approximation of the Fisher matrix, and an analysis of the (approximate) parameterization invariance property possessed by natural gradient methods, which we show still holds for certain choices of the curvature matrix other than the Fisher, but notably not the Hessian.
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