Scalability Concerns of Chirp Spread Spectrum for LPWAN Applications
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International Journal of Ad hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing (IJASUC) 10 (1): 11 (February 2019)

Divergent modulation schemes have been proposed for the Internet of Things (IoT). Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) technologies are gaining unprecedented acceptance in IoT application of sensor networks. Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) is a prominent modulation technique proposed for LPWAN. Chirps can traverse long distance and are resilient to noise and Doppler effects. Noise resilience along with transmission range and low power requirement makes CSS a preferred modulation scheme for sensor networks. LoRaWANTM, with its physical (PHY) layer using CSS, has emerged as the widely accepted LPWAN solution. By using CSS modulation with orthogonal spreading factors (SF), LoRa offers wide coverage to LPWAN applications while supporting a high volume of devices. However, scalability performance of CSS has not been inadequately modeled. As with the suitability of the modulation scheme, there are concerns on how chirps interact with the surrounding as the number of deployments bursts out into higher volumes. We evaluate CSS at ISM band 868 MHz for spreading factor 7 to 12 at bandwidth 125 kHz for performance and scalability. Simultaneous transmissions were simulated with repeated iterations and conclusions are arrived on collisions rate, packet error rate, and bit error. Suitability of using CSS for sensor networks for future deployments is commended
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