Flow over a backward-facing step: A benchmark problem for laminar flow with heat transfer
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Benchmark Problems for Heat Transfer Codes, HTD-222, ASME, New York, (1992)

The problem of two-dimensional laminar flow over a backward-facing step, with cooling of the upper and lower walls, is solved using the finite element method. The incompressibility constraint is imposed via the penalty approximation and convective stability is maintained through the use of a Petrov–Galerkin method. Several grid refinements are studied, and profiles of temperature and velocity are provided at four axial locations.
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