Analyses of Human Sensitivity to Redirected Walking
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ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST), page 149--156. ACM Press, (2008)(acceptance rate 17\%).

Redirected walking allows users to walk through large-scale immersive virtual environments (IVEs) while physically remaining in a reasonably small workspace by intentionally injecting scene motion into the IVE. In a constant stimuli experiment with a two-alternative-forced-choice task we have quantified how much humans can unknowingly be redirected on virtual paths which are different from the paths they actually walk. 18 subjects have been tested in four different experiments: (E1a) discrimination between virtual and physical rotation, (E1b) discrimination between two successive rotations, (E2) discrimination between virtual and physical translation, and discrimination of walking direction (E3a) without and (E3b) with start-up. In experiment E1a subjects performed rotations to which different gains have been applied, and then had to choose whether or not the visually perceived rotation was greater than the physical rotation. In experiment E1b subjects discriminated between two successive rotations where different gains have been applied to the physical rotation. In experiment E2 subjects chose if they thought that the physical walk was longer than the visually perceived scaled travel distance. In experiment E3a subjects walked a straight path in the IVE which was physically bent to the left or to the right, and they estimate the direction of the curvature. In experiment E3a the gain was applied immediately, whereas the gain was applied after a start-up of two meters in experiment E3b. Our results show that users can be turned physically about 68% more or 10% less than the perceived virtual rotation, distances can be up- or down-scaled by 22%, and users can be redirected on an circular arc with a radius greater than 24 meters while they believe they are walking straight.
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