Satellite Droplet Formation in a Liquid Jet
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IBM Journal of Research and Development 21 (1): 21--30 (1977)

The formation and behavior of satellite droplets in a liquid jet is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The satellite droplet break-off distance is measured stroboscopically as a function of the frequency and amplitude of nozzle vibration. A second-order analysis of spatial instability is developed, which demonstrates the essential features of satellite formation as it is observed. Satellite formation is least likely to occur when the main-drop spacing is five to seven times the jet diameter.
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