W. Pimbley, and H. Lee. IBM Journal of Research and Development21 (1):
The formation and behavior of satellite droplets in a liquid jet is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The satellite droplet break-off distance is measured stroboscopically as a function of the frequency and amplitude of nozzle vibration. A second-order analysis of spatial instability is developed, which demonstrates the essential features of satellite formation as it is observed. Satellite formation is least likely to occur when the main-drop spacing is five to seven times the jet diameter.