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Resequencing of 200 human exomes identifies an excess of low-frequency non-synonymous coding variants
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Nat Genet 42 (11): 969--972 (November 2010)

Targeted capture combined with massively parallel exome sequencing is a promising approach to identify genetic variants implicated in human traits. We report exome sequencing of 200 individuals from Denmark with targeted capture of 18,654 coding genes and sequence coverage of each individual exome at an average depth of 12-fold. On average, about 95% of the target regions were covered by at least one read. We identified 121,870 SNPs in the sample population, including 53,081 coding SNPs (cSNPs). Using a statistical method for SNP calling and an estimation of allelic frequencies based on our population data, we derived the allele frequency spectrum of cSNPs with a minor allele frequency greater than 0.02. We identified a 1.8-fold excess of deleterious, non-syonomyous cSNPs over synonymous cSNPs in the low-frequency range (minor allele frequencies between 2% and 5%). This excess was more pronounced for X-linked SNPs, suggesting that deleterious substitutions are primarily recessive. From angsd manual: frequency based on base counts. This method does not rely on genotype likelihood or probabilities but instead infers the allele frequency directly on the base counts.
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