Rice is one of the most important cereals in the world for being as the staple food. Rice has widespread popularity across Bangladesh, where it uniquely suited to wet environments. Presently, a large number of germplasm have been collected in gene banks all over the world, but methods for the effective management and utilization of such huge collections remain a challenging task. On the other hand, the concept of core collection provides a new way of management and utilization of plant germplasm resources. Frankel first termed a collection to a core collection which would represent the genetic diversity of a crop species with a minimum of repetitiveness. But systematic study has yet been done on core collection of rice in Bangladesh. The objective of the present review study was, therefore, to select the core collections from previously agro-morphologically, physico-chemically and molecularly characterized Kartiksail and Dhaliboro rice. In the present study, the core collections were selected using the hierarchical cluster analysis, where a representative sample with high phenotypic values was drawn from each group. Moreover, the selection processes were improved by combining several evaluation methods. However, special emphasis was given on the genotypic values of the germplasm. In the conclusion, the core collections for Kartiksail landraces were KS1, KS5, KS6, KS7, KS9, KS11, KS13, KS16, KS19, KS20 and KS21, whereas that of Dhaliboro were DB3, DB4, DB7, DB8 and DB10. The selected landraces may be utilized in different hybridization programmes for developing new variety.