Stability of playfulness across environmental settings: a pilot study.
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Phys Occup Ther Pediatr 27 (1): 27--43 (2007)

The Test of Playfulness (ToP) was used in this pilot study to examine the stability of playfulness of 16 children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 4-8 years, across three environmental settings: home, community, and school. Each videotaped play segment was scored using the ToP. The ANOVA statistic demonstrated a significant variance (p < 0.05) in the playfulness of the children across the 3 settings. The children were most playful at home and least playful at school (p < 0.05). The variability in playfulness across settings suggests that playful behaviors are influenced by factors external to the child. Eleven children were playful (achieving a positive ToP score) in at least one environment, which demonstrates that they had the capacity to be playful. Their play was supported in some settings and not in others. However, there was a lack of playfulness in 65\% of the play segments suggesting that these children experience many barriers to their participation in play. Future research is needed to identify factors that help and hinder the playfulness of children with CP.
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