Molecular regulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor ion channel.
Cell Calcium 35 (6): 621--628 (June 2004)

The release of Ca$^2+$ ions from intracellular stores is a key step in a wide variety of cellular functions. In striated muscle, the release of Ca$^2+$ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) leads to muscle contraction. Ca$^2+$ release occurs through large, high-conductance Ca$^2+$ release channels, also known as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) because they bind the plant alkaloid ryanodine with high affinity and specificity. The RyRs are isolated as 30S protein complexes comprised of four 560 kDa RyR2 subunits and four 12 kDa FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) subunits. Multiple endogenous effector molecules and posttranslational modifications regulate the RyRs. This review focuses on current research toward understanding the control of the isolated cardiac Ca$^2+$ release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2) by Ca$^2+$, calmodulin, thiol oxidation/reduction and nitrosylation, and protein phosphorylation.
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