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- Broadly speaking, there are two no free lunch theorems. One for supervised machine learning and one for search/optimization.
- EM has been shown to have favorable convergence properties, automatical satisfaction of constraints, and fast convergence. The next section explains the traditional approach to deriving the EM algorithm and proving its convergence property. Section 3.3 covers the interpretion the EM algorithm as the maximization of two quantities: the entropy and the expectation of complete-data likelihood. Then, the K-means algorithm and the EM algorithm are compared. The conditions under which the EM algorithm is reduced to the K-means are also explained. The discussion in Section 3.4 generalizes the EM algorithm described in Sections 3.2 and 3.3 to problems with partial-data and hidden-state. We refer to this new type of EM as the doubly stochastic EM. Finally, the chapter is concluded in Section 3.5.
- This series of three talks will give a nontechnical, high level overview of geometric complexity theory (GCT), which is an approach to the P vs. NP problem via algebraic geometry, representation theory, and the theory of a new class of quantum groups, called nonstandard quantum groups, that arise in this approach.
- In mathematical logic, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, proved by Kurt Gödel in 1931, are two theorems stating inherent limitations of all but the most trivial formal systems for arithmetic of mathematical interest. The theorems are of considerable importance to the philosophy of mathematics. They are widely regarded as showing that Hilbert's program to find a complete and consistent set of axioms for all of mathematics is impossible, thus giving a negative answer to Hilbert's second problem.

*Commun. ACM**52 (10): 76--84*(*2009*)- (
*2003*)