Multi-digit Number Recognition from Street View Imagery using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
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(2013)cite arxiv:1312.6082.

Recognizing arbitrary multi-character text in unconstrained natural photographs is a hard problem. In this paper, we address an equally hard sub-problem in this domain viz. recognizing arbitrary multi-digit numbers from Street View imagery. Traditional approaches to solve this problem typically separate out the localization, segmentation, and recognition steps. In this paper we propose a unified approach that integrates these three steps via the use of a deep convolutional neural network that operates directly on the image pixels. We employ the DistBelief implementation of deep neural networks in order to train large, distributed neural networks on high quality images. We find that the performance of this approach increases with the depth of the convolutional network, with the best performance occurring in the deepest architecture we trained, with eleven hidden layers. We evaluate this approach on the publicly available SVHN dataset and achieve over $96\%$ accuracy in recognizing complete street numbers. We show that on a per-digit recognition task, we improve upon the state-of-the-art, achieving $97.84\%$ accuracy. We also evaluate this approach on an even more challenging dataset generated from Street View imagery containing several tens of millions of street number annotations and achieve over $90\%$ accuracy. To further explore the applicability of the proposed system to broader text recognition tasks, we apply it to synthetic distorted text from reCAPTCHA. reCAPTCHA is one of the most secure reverse turing tests that uses distorted text to distinguish humans from bots. We report a $99.8\%$ accuracy on the hardest category of reCAPTCHA. Our evaluations on both tasks indicate that at specific operating thresholds, the performance of the proposed system is comparable to, and in some cases exceeds, that of human operators.
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